In the year 1199, Guillaume, of the monastic order
of Chalais, made his way to an isolated valley between the Riou Merlet
and the Brague rivers where he founded the Abbey of Sainte Marie de
Valbonne, to which a new township was added 320 years later: the
village of Valbonne.
OF THE ABBEY OF VALBONNE
The Abbey of Valbonne is a good example of
Chalaisian Romanesque construction, very close to the
simplified Cistercian primitive style with a flat chancel, a sole nave,
and a single chapel in each arm of the transept. The austerity of the
Order was demonstrated by the communal life of the monks and the lay
brothers. The latter entered the church for services by a door leading
directly from the cloister to the front of the nave of the church, they
took their meals with the monks and a shared exterior staircase reached
their respective dormitories. Of modest dimensions because of the
relatively small size of the community - from 15 to 30 members at the
most - the abbey church is remarkable for the quality of the materials
used and the careful workmanship of its construction. Fine-grained
stone quarried from a nearby site was cut and precisely shaped with
hammer and chisel so that it could be mounted almost without the use of
mortar. The monastery buildings, which are joined to the south transept
of the church, were of a ruder construction in roughly hewn blocks of
stone and lime mortar. Narrow windows of carved stone traverse the
facade of their upper floor.
Set on the bank of the River Brague, in an
isolated and wooded valley, the abbey fitted nicely with the
Chalaisian rules of solitude and silence while being well placed for
the monks' activities of sheep farming and forestry. The monastery
buildings have been well preserved. Restoration work started in 1970 is
continuing. The rebuilding of the ruined vaulting of the monks'
dormitory has been completed.
The buildings are located around a rectangular
courtyard, once cloistered, measuring 18 metres 30 wide and
21 metres 50 long. The south transept of the church communicates on the
ground floor with a sacristy, beyond which is the abbey's chapter
house. From the monks' passage leading to the gardens, there is access
to a workroom.
The monks' dormitory occupies
the whole length of the upper floor. The abbot's room, which is next to
the transept, had a door opening to a wooden staircase leading directly
into the church, convenient for nighttime worship and early morning
service. The dormitory accommodation is in the spirit of the Cistercian
practice, as opposed to the Cartesians who used individual cells.
The wing of the monastery opposite the nave of the
church had, on the ground floor, the common room, kitchen and
dining hall, and the lay brothers' dormitory on the upper
On the upper floor at the south-east corner of the
cloister, two doors, one to the monks' dormitory and the other to the
laymen's, opened onto an external staircase,
probably built of wood, a construction material which was common to the
Chalaisian abbeys of the mountains. The third side of the cloister was
occupied by a gallery, or, more probably, by a simple wall.
The outside wall of the church's nave forms the
fourth side of the courtyard. Between the lay brothers' door and the
corner of the transept, where the monks' entrance is situated, there is
to be admired a beautifully formed alcove with a
vaulted arch and a double rectangular entrance under a straight lintel
and two recessed tympana. Opening on to the formerly cloistered area,
it was probably used for the storage of books.
No vestiges of the cloisters remain, though corbels
projecting from the walls testify to their existence in the past.
The main entrance is through a Romanesque
doorway of original stonework with three arches surmounted by
a recessed tympanum supported on either side by three columns bearing
monolithic capitals decorated with primitive carved human heads and
shapes that could be goats' horns. Unfortunately, in the wall above
this doorway, twin windows were added during the 20th century in place
of the round Romanesque oculus window that was there previously.
Once inside, there is an atmosphere of
profound serenity which is created by the handsome bonding of
the finely jointed stonework of the church, which takes the form of a
Latin cross facing the east, the flat chapter and the two side chapels
in the transepts, all on the same level as the nave, and the arched
barrel vaulting, resting on stone cordons, separating the four bays of
Level with the fourth bay, the laymen's door opens into the nave, the
floor of which slopes gently towards the chapter as a sign of humility.
It is simple and austere. No sculpture distracts the eye. Twelve
crosses of consecration, cut in relief along the walls, add to the
spirituality of the abbey church.
The chapter, with its two
Romanesque windows surmounted by an opening in the form of a Greek
cross, measures 5 metres 60 by 6 metres 50. Viewed from the nave, it is
striking. The stone altar, the same one used by the Chalaisians, holds
a sacred relic, sealed into a cavity in its table. It was found under
the Baroque altar that was moved after the Vatican II council. In the
southern wall, there is the seat of the officiating priest and the door
of the dead, which provided access to the abbey's cemetery. In the
opposite wall is set a cupboard for the consecrated elements of the
At the back of the nave can be seen the holes
through the vaulting through which passed the ropes to ring the bell
the little Chalaisian belfry, which was demolished and replaced by the
present tower in 1854.
In the northern arm of the transept can be admired a
Baroque altar with its baldachin canopy (classed as a
Historic Monument) and in the southern arm a magnificent altar dating
from 1643 which is backed by a painting of Notre Dame du Rosaire (also
classified) that hides the door leading to the old sacristy. To the
left of the altar, high in the wall, can be seen the shape of the
doorway that led to the abbot's room and the monks' dormitory. By means
of this door, and a wooden staircase, they were able to reach the
church for services during the night. During the day, they entered the
church from the cloister through the monks' doorway, now hidden on the
inside by the confessional, but visible from the outside.
Unhappily, the Romanesque windows on the south side
of the nave were enlarged during the 19th century. The windows on the
north side were walled up in the 17th century when a chapel
for the White Penitents was added to that side of the abbey